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It’s a process where any man can freeze his sperm to use for future treatments to be get a biological child or can donate the same for someone else. Semen that is donated needs quarrantine for 3 months and is tested for HIV, Hepatitis B and HCV infections.
Donor information as to identity is kept anonymous but physical characteristics like skin, hair colour, eye colour, height weight are revealed to the couple.
Frozen semen can last for 50 years as the quality does not degrade once the sample is frozen. Laws allow samples to be frozen for 10 years.
In a Frozen sample some of the sperms die in the first 48 hours after which the sample parameters remain the same for as long as still it is frozen. The prewash motility and viability are accurate markers for the post wash storage.
The answer is yes it can be used for IUI and IVF.
For IVF ICSI needs to be done
To a minimal extent Oxidative Damage and Osmosis and Cryoprotectants can cause storm damage but pregnancy rates are not statistically significant when a frozen sample is used.